Home » Entertainment » 15 Interesting Facts About the Croatian Language

15 Interesting Facts About the Croatian Language

(photo credit: Marko Lukunic/PIXSELL)

By Iva Ralica

According to many foreigners, the Croatian language is one of the hardest to learn.

Even born-and-raised Croatians can sometimes be slightly uncertain about grammar rules and accents. Still, Croatian is one of the most interesting languages with a very rich history.

Here are 15 facts about the Croatian language:

One of the South Slavic languages, Croatian has been called differently throughout history, and one of the names was “Illyrian”.

The Croatian language was first mentioned in 1275 in the document “Istarski razvod”.

The word “encyclopedia” was first used in 1559 by Pavao Skalić from Zagreb.

In 1843 Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski was the first man to speak in Croatian before the Parliament. The speech daringly promoted the struggle for national liberation, asking for Croatian to become the official language in schools and offices, with its gradual introduction in the public life. He also pointed out the danger of replacing Croatian with other languages.

Statue of Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski in Zagreb (photo credit: Suradnik13 under CC)

Croatian Parliament passed the decision to make Croatian the official language in 1847, replacing Latin.

Croatian has three major groups of dialects – Kajkavian, Štokavian and Čakavian – all of which are further divided into six or seven dialects. Kajkavian dialects mark many loan words from German and Hungarian, Štokavian dialects from Turkish and Italian (and in the North also German and Hungarian) and Čakavian from Italian.

The shortest Croatian words are just one letter – a (but, and) u (in), i (and), s (with, from), k (to).

The longest Croatian word (beside the written form of long numbers) is prijestolonasljednikovičičinima with 31 character (30 letters since “lj” is one letter). Prijestolonasljednikovičičinima – translates in English to “of little heiress apparent to the throne” in plural dative case.

Croatian is one of the sources for the minimal language “toki pona”, created in Toronto and based on natural languages according to tao principles.

Toki Pona pronunciation chart (image: Jan Nikita under CC)

The word “paprika” was transferred into many European languages in its original form, not translated.

In Croatian people with blonde hair are described as having blue hair (plava).

One Croatian word with the highest number of synonyms is “a cob” (corn cob). Synonyms are; ajdamak, bat, batakljuša, bataljika, batučak, batuček, batuk, baturak, baturice, čepina, čokotinja, ćuka, kic, klas, klasina, klasinec, klasovina, klasovinje, kočanj, kocen, komaljika, komušina, kukuruzina, kumina, kureljica, kuruška, oklipak, okoma, okomak, okomina, okrunica, orušek, otučak, paćika, patura, paturica, rucelj, rucl, rulina, šapurika, ščavina, šepurina, štruk, tekun, tulina, tulinek to name a few!

‘Blue’ – haired lady

Croatian is one of three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The oldest Croatian dialect is believed to spoken in Bednja in the Hrvatsko zagorje region.

Croatians are one of the most creative when it comes to swear words in Europe, largely due to a rich dialect and an abundance of synonyms.

Bednja (image: tourism.bednja.hr)

Check out some different words for the same thing in different parts of Croatia here.

Share on:
4.60 / 5 (10 votes)

Sign up to receive the Croatia Week Newsletter

Related Posts

What’s Your Favourite Croatian Word?

If you have ever started learning a foreign language or been surrounded by one, then no doubt you would have come across some words that which for one reason or another stick in your head or make you laugh. Some words which sound romantic to the foreign ear can sometimes be abusive or swear words....

Young Croatians & the English Language

  By Iva Ralica It is said that young Croatians usually speak English very well. Better than most from other Slavic language speaking countries. It is not just knowledge of English that young Croatians are generally competent, but also pronunciation. For example young Croatians are generally not lumped in the same basket as Russians when...

Croatian Names & Surnames in English Form

By Iva Ralica Many names and surnames in Croatia are derived from old Slavic words, with no equivalent in other languages outside its circle. Still, some do have their English form, such as the surname Kovač (Smith) and the name Ivan (John). Others, like Horvat – the older version of the word Hrvat, meaning a...

Croatian Recipes: Štrukli

A take on one of Croatia’s traditional dishes which has been inducted into the list of Croatia’s intangible cultural heritage. Zagorski Štrukli, which is a popular dish served mainly in the north of the country, is composed of dough and various types of filling which can be either cooked or baked. Prep is the same...

Croatia World’s Biggest Exporter of Footballers Per Capita

Croatia is the biggest exporter of footballer players in the world based on population and the number of registered players, according to statistics from CIES Football Observatory. CIES based their findings on studying 137 leagues in 93 national federations. All players, which totaled 12,051, were part of the first-team sides in those leagues as of...